Electroconvulsive therapy a modern analysis

Resistance to pharmacotherapy remains a serious problem in the treatment of schizophrenia[ 37 ].

long term effects of ect

Participants were recruited through advertisements placed in ECT clinics, community mental health services, newsletters, conferences, advocacy groups and via mental health clinicians.

Your nurse or other team member inserts an IV tube into your arm or hand through which medications or fluids can be given. Patients with a serious physical or neurological disorder, those with a history of head trauma and with mental retardation and those who could not self-administer SSMQ were excluded from the study.

However, this open and comprehensive information sharing from the treating team was not experienced by all participants.

Ect reviews 2018

Side effects Participants reported numerous side effects, particularly side effects related to memory and cognition. Other sources of information were knowledgeable family members and others who had received ECT. In the s, psychiatrists began to experiment with curare , the muscle-paralysing South American poison, in order to modify the convulsions. Keywords: Electroconvulsive therapy, History, Indications, Utilization, Attitudes Core tip: Electroconvulsive therapy ECT , which is among the most controversial psychiatric treatments, has its 80th birthday this year. I probably just read about it on Wikipedia or something. Once they started trials on patients, they found that after treatments the results were significant. After defining the parameters of a safe electric stimulus through animal studies, they performed the first electric seizure induction in a psychotic patient named Enrico X on April 11, Meduna[ 4 ] observed that in the brains of epileptic patients, glial cells occupied the spaces left by lost neurons. Large global variation in ECT utilization, administration, and practice advocates a need for worldwide sharing of knowledge about ECT, reflection, and learning from each other's experiences.

About 83 of the patients The findings of Slade et al 4 should be interpreted in the context of a large and diverse body of evidence regarding ECT efficacy. Meduna[ 4 ] was also intrigued by a report about two schizophrenia patients whose conditions remitted following episodic epileptic seizures[ 7 ].

When you wake up, you may experience a period of confusion lasting from a few minutes to a few hours or more.

Electroconvulsive therapy a modern analysis

In bilateral ECT, the two electrodes are placed on opposite sides of the head. In the 2 subsequent years, Meduna[ 12 ] treated more than patients, of whom half recovered or significantly improved. Rapid mental health improvements A final positive aspect of the process for many was that improvements came quickly, bringing relief from extreme suffering. He is the originator of magnetic seizure therapy and is the inventor on a nonremunerative patent for focal electrically administered seizure therapy. Marked progress has been made in refining the ECT electrical stimulus. The data analysis process did not involve members of the steering committee to ensure that the consumer led nature of the study was not compromised. Slade et al 4 found that while the percentage of inpatients receiving ECT was small 1. However, it was soon found to be even more effective for the treatment of affective disorders[ 25 ]. Uncommonly bifrontal placement in used; this involves positioning the electrodes on the patient's forehead, roughly above each eye. Table 1 Demographic characteristics of participants Four themes were identified. Psychotic conditions that respond well to ECT include catatonia and pre- and postpartum psychotic states[ 40 ].

Waiting in line Four participants described that waiting in line for ECT was distressing. In the United States, the nationwide number of persons ECT treated per 10, resident population per year, was estimated to be 4.

Electroconvulsive therapy side effects

Positive aspects Numerous aspects enhanced participant experiences of ECT. In the early s, in an attempt to reduce the memory disturbance and confusion associated with treatment, two modifications were introduced: the use of unilateral electrode placement and the replacement of sinusoidal current with brief pulse. Although antipsychotics are equally effective for schizophrenia[ 35 ], financial reasons may explain the common use of ECT in this patient population[ 36 ]. A survey of ECT use in found that more than half of ECT clinics failed to meet minimum standards set by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, with a later survey in finding that minimum standards were largely adhered to, but that two-thirds of clinics still fell short of current guidelines, particularly in the training and supervision of junior doctors involved in the procedure. As a result of these efforts, muscle relaxation[ 42 ] and anaesthesia[ 43 ] were introduced by the early s. World War I era. These difficulties led Ugo Cerletti and his colleagues at the university psychiatric clinic in Rome to search for an alternative means of seizure induction. Whereas lobotomies would reduce a patient to a more manageable submissive state, ECT helped to improve mood in those with severe depression. The use of ECT declined in the s and s after the introduction of pharmacotherapy for severe mental disorders McCall
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Electroconvulsive therapy: 80 years old and still going strong