Stories about the Norsemen were also written by their contemporaries, including both their trading partners such as the Arabs and the victims of their raids such as the Christian clerics who kept the historical records in Europe. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Makaev, who presumes a "special runic koine ", an early "literary Germanic" employed by the entire Late Common Germanic linguistic community after the separation of Gothic 2nd to 5th centurieswhile the spoken dialects may already have been more diverse.
The tablet shown in the photos is a modern reproduction. Scholars wrote books describing how to use Roman letters to represent the sounds of the Icelandic language. Material was deleted and new material written to bridge the gap.
The purpose of the Rok stone is subject to debate, but may well be a memorial stone, as well. No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time.
The accuracy of the sagas especially the Icelandic family sagas has long been debated. There are two additional consonants.
While the eddic poetry is uniformly anonymous, much of the surviving skaldic poetry is credited to a particular poet at a particular place and time.