The respiratory system
The structure and function of the respiratory system
More specifically, the amount of gas absorbed could be increased if the rate of blood supply to the lung were increased by flow limitation. Flow limitation: an overview. The amount of air you blow out from your lungs determines how loud a sound will be and how long you can make the sound. Breathing ceases during this maneuver. For most healthy individuals, the most common respiratory ailment they may face is an infection, according to Dr. These alveolar macrophages can scavenge and clear some insoluble particle into the lymphatic system. The carbon dioxide the blood left behind moves into the alveoli and gets expelled in our exhaled breath. The Valsalva maneuver can be carried out voluntarily, but is more generally a reflex elicited when attempting to empty the abdomen during, for instance, difficult defecation, or during childbirth. The stratified squamous epithelium of the oropharynx is continuous with the laryngopharynx. A Look Inside the Lungs From the outside, lungs are pink and a bit squishy, like a sponge.
From the sinus, air passes through the trachea, also called the windpipe, and into the bronchial tubes, which are the two tubes that carry air into each lung each one is called a bronchus.
The uvula is a small bulbous, teardrop-shaped structure located at the apex of the soft palate.
The mucociliary escalator provides a barrier against infection Pulmonary Region By far, the most important site for absorption is the pulmonary region consisting of the very small airways called bronchioles and the alveolar sacs of the lung.
The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungswhich carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe.
Parts of the respiratory system
The external nose consists of the surface and skeletal structures that result in the outward appearance of the nose and contribute to its numerous functions Figure 2. The esophagus borders the trachea posteriorly. This is achieved by breathing deeper and faster i. At altitude this causes the pulmonary arterial pressure to rise resulting in a much more even distribution of blood flow to the lungs than occurs at sea level. Let's take a tour of the lungs! The carbon dioxide the blood left behind moves into the alveoli and gets expelled in our exhaled breath. The thyroid cartilage is the largest piece of cartilage that makes up the larynx. The diaphragm, a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs, controls breathing and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. Trachea: Located just below the larynx, the trachea is the main airway to the lungs. As you breathe more deeply and take in more air, your lungs become stronger and better at supplying your body with the air it needs to succeed. Respiratory Zone In contrast to the conducting zone, the respiratory zone includes structures that are directly involved in gas exchange.
The air then goes through the series of branches in your lungs, through the bronchi and the bronchioles. Thirdly, the surface tension of the curved watery layer lining the alveoli tends to draw water from the lung tissues into the alveoli.
Respiratory system diagram
Seromucous glands provide lubricating mucus. This not only drastically decreases the size of the rib cage, but also pushes the abdominal organs upwards against the diaphragm which consequently bulges deeply into the thorax Fig. Your lungs make up one of the largest organs in your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, get rid of stale air, and even talk. Figure 4. The particular action illustrated here is called the pump handle movement of the rib cage. Start Your Free Trial Today On each side, the intranasal space communicates with a series of neighbouring air-filled cavities within the skull the paranasal sinuses and also, via the nasolacrimal duct , with the lacrimal apparatus in the corner of the eye. The epithelium contains goblet cells, one of the specialized, columnar epithelial cells that produce mucus to trap debris. In dry air the partial pressure of O2 at sea level is The root is the region of the nose located between the eyebrows. Septal cartilage is flexible hyaline cartilage connected to the nasal bone, forming the dorsum nasi. A Look Inside the Lungs From the outside, lungs are pink and a bit squishy, like a sponge.
In addition, the trachealis muscle can be contracted to force air through the trachea during exhalation. When you hiccup, it's because the diaphragm moves in a funny way that causes you to breathe in air suddenly, and that air hits your vocal cords when you're not ready.
This fact explains why nasal respiration can be rapidly impaired or even impeded during weeping: the lacrimal fluid is not only overflowing into tears, it is also flooding the nasal cavity. The oxygenated blood then makes its way to the pulmonary vein.
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